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Производство оборудования и технологии
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Liquid Wastes

Organic Chemical Waste. Organic wastes from chemical production vary as widely as the processes from which they originate. One published example is the feedstock to a waste gasification plant at Seal Sands (United Kingdom), which processes streams from caprolactam and acrylonitrile production. These waste streams include mixtures of nitriles and amines as well as cyanide and ammonia compounds. The differences in the characteristics of these streams, the flow rates of which can vary independently from one another, can be observed in Table 4-21 (Schingnitz etal. 2000).

Other Liquid Wastes. Liquid wastes such as spent transformer oil can best be gasified in oil gasifiers together with heavy residual oils. The advantage of this approach is

Table 4-21

Waste Streams from Caprolactam and Acrylonitrile Production

Stream

1

2

3

4

C, wt%

62.5

36.5

18.9

25.3

H, wt%

7.4

8.5

9.4

6.6

N, wt%

23.8

19.8

7.1

11.0

S, mg/kg

90

<50

690

46,500

Cl, mg/kg

<50

<50

<50

125

Ash, wt%

<0.05

<0.05

<0.05

0.68

Moisture, wt %

6.1

27.4

62.6

35.3

Heating value, MJ/kg

30.7

21.2

8.0

8.2

Source: Schingnitz et al. 2000

that use can be made of efficient large installations and that the concentrations of, for example, chlorine remain moderate and acceptable in terms of corrosion.

Many attempts have been and are being made to dissolve polymers such as plastics and rubber in oil and gasify them as a liquid rather than as a solid (e. g., Leuna-Werke 1995; Curran and Tyree 1998). The attraction of gasifying plastics as a liquid with oxygen is that a synthesis gas quality gas is produced, which can either be used as a fuel gas in a combined cycle or as a synthesis gas for methanol production, for example. The main problems are technically to make the liquid sufficiently homoge­neous that it can be gasified using residual oil burners and commercially to ensure a long-term supply. Recycled plastic is generally too contaminated to allow a stand-alone project possible. Offcut waste from manufacturing processes, however, does offer both uncontaminated material and a better prospect for security of supply.

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Chapter 5

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