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Производство оборудования и технологии
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Ethanol Blends Used around the World

Low ethanol blends of E5-E25 range are used in more than 20 coun­tries around the world, led by the United States, where ethanol represented approximately 10% of the US gasoline fuel supply in 2011 [4]. Blends from E20 to E25 have been used in Brazil since the late 1970s, and E85 is commonly used in the US and Europe for flexible-fuel vehicles. Some of the ethanol blends used around the world are shown in Table 16.6.

16.6.1 Blender Pump Blends

Federal and local initiatives to increase the use of ethanol in trans­portation have resulted in several initiatives and applications for FFVs. One option is the ethanol blender-pump dispenser. Blender pumps offer FFV owners a variety of ethanol-blended gasoline products between E15 and E85. E20 (20% ethanol, 80% gasoline) and E30 (30% ethanol, 70% gasoline) are the most common blends selected. Stations offering blender-pump blends to FFV owners are concentrated in the Midwest. Blender pumps are also a legal method to dispense E15 to 2001 vehicle model years and newer once the fuel is approved for sale. Blender pumps draw fuel from two separate storage tanks (E10 and E85) and can dispense prepro­grammed blends of those two fuels. Labels must clearly indicate blender pump fuels for FFVs.

Table 16.6 Some of the ethanol blends used around the world.

Country

Ethanol — gasoline blend

Legal use

USA

E10/E15/E85

Mandated only in certain states

Brazil

E20-E25

Mandated

Canada

E5

Mandated

China

E10

Nine provinces

India

E5

Mandated

Mexico

E6

Mandated

Thailand

E10/E20

Mandated

Austria

E10

Optional

Denmark

E5

Optional

Finland

E5/E10

Mandated

Germany

E5/E10

Optional

Ireland

E4

Mandated

Netherlands

E5/E10/hE15

Optional

Romania

E4

Mandated

Sweden

E5

Mandated

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