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Some Cellulosic Plants around the World

As of 2013, cellulosic ethanol industry has approached a rapidly developing phase. A number of entrepreneurs and companies who believed in currently available technologies have invested

Table 17.5 A techno-economic comparison of production of ethanol via biochemical processing with the most competitive thermochemical pro­cess (2010 year-dollars) [22,10].

Biochemical (DAP + EH + CF)

Thermochemical EF + MoS2 ABNT

Feedstock price ($/dry tonne)

87

87

Plant size (dry tonne/day)a

2000

2140

Ethanol production (ML/ yr)b

202

147

Export of electricityc (MW)

25.8

0

Total capital investment1 (M$)

395

476

Extra revenues6 (M$/yr)

12.3

21.4

Net operating costsf (M$/yr)

124.5

76.6

MESP ($/L)

0.95

1.00

DAP — Dilute acid pretreatment; EH — enzymatic hydrolysis; CF — co-fermentation; EF — entrained flow gasification

a Biomass feedstock for biochemical and thermochemical processing is corn stover (25% moisture) and poplar chips (30% moisture), respectively

b 8406 and 8000 operating hours per year for biochemical and thermochemical processing

c Sold to grid, 5.7 cent/kWh credits for electricity d Including working capital e Revenues from co-products or electricity

f Fixed and variable operating costs less revenues from co-products or electricity

in building commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants, mostly in Europe and North America. Due to many reasons, it is not easy to give accurate statistics or a current status report of a series of privately owned industries. However, anybody who is paying attention to renewable energy issues and the biofuel industry is interested in learning about the progress in the cellulosic ethanol arena. Thus, currently operating and under-construction plants around the world are listed in Table 17.6.

Company name and Plant location

Plant type and Status

Feedstock(s)

Product(s)

Cellulosic

ethanol

Capacity

Project Profile

Abengoa BioEnergy, York, NE, USA

Pilot Facility, Began opera­tions 2007

Wheat straw, Corn

Cellulosic

ethanol

20,000 G/Y

Completed and first cellulosic ethanol produced in 2007

Abengoa

BioEnergy,

Salamanca,

Spain

Demonstration Facility, Began opera­tions 2007

Wheat and Barley straw

Cellulosic

ethanol

1.3 MG/Y

Completed and first cellulosic ethanol produced in 2009

Abengoa BioEnergy, Hugoton, KS, USA

Commercial

Facility,

Under

construction

Agricultural resi­due, dedicated energy crops, prairie grasses

Cellulosic ethanol, 20 MW electricity

25 MG/Y

Construction started September 2011; will utilize proprietary enzyme hydrolysis technology; 1,100 dry tons per day feed­stock; construction to be completed in December 2013

American

Process, Green Power+,

Alpena, MI, USA

Demonstration Facility, Began opera­tions 2012

Mixed hardwood

Cellulosic

ethanol,

Potassium

acetate

700,000

G/Y

The plant is co-located with Decorative Panels International (DPI) hardboard manufacturing facility. Plant construc­tion began in June 2012, currently in startup mode.

Table 17.6 Some currently operating and under-construction cellulosic ethanol plants around the world as of March 2013/

*

542 Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

Company name and Plant location

Plant type and Status

Feedstock(s)

Product(s)

Cellulosic

ethanol

Capacity

Project Profile

Clariant

Straubing,

Germany

Demonstration Facility, Began opera­tions 2012

Phase

1-Agricultural residue. Phase 2 — Dedicated energy crops

Cellulosic

ethanol,

cellulosic

sugars,

biobased

chemicals

330,000

G/Y

The plant produced first volumes of cel­lulosic ethanol in July, 2012. The plant will demonstrate the technical and eco­nomical advantages of feedstock specific enzymes, on-site process integrated enzyme production, simultaneous C5 and C6 fermentation in a single reactor and energy saving ethanol separation and purification process

EnerKem,

Westbury, QC, Canada

Demonstration Facility, Began opera­tions 2009

Municipal Solid waste, wood residue

Cellulosic

ethanol,

syngas,

biometha­

nol

1.3 MG/Y

Based on proprietary thermochemical conversion technology. Utilize used electricity poles to produce ethanol and methanol

EnerKem, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Commercial Facility, Phase 1 completion in 2013

Municipal Solid waste

Cellulosic

ethanol,

syngas,

biometha­

nol

10 MG/Y

Based on proprietary thermochemical conversion technology. Enerkem has a 25 year agreement with City of Edmonton to build and operate a plant that will produce next generation biofuel from non-recyclable, non-compostable munici­pal solid waste. It is the world’s first major collaboration between metropolitan centre and a waste to biofuel company

544 Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

Company name and Plant location

Plant type and Status

Feedstock(s)

Product(s)

Cellulosic

ethanol

Capacity

Project Profile

POET-DSM, Project Liberty Emmetsburg, IA, USA

Commercial

Facility,

Estimated

completion

2013

Corn crop residue

Cellulosic

ethanol,

biogas

20 MG/Y grow­ing to 25 MG/Y

Located adjacent to current POET grain ethanol plant. A 50/50 joint venture between Royal DSM and POET, LLC based in Sioux Falls, SD. Utilizes propri­etary enzyme technology to convert corn crop residue to ethanol

ZeaChem, Boardman, OR, USA

Demonstration Facility, Began opera­tions 2012

Poplar trees, Wheat straw

Cellulosic

ethanol,

bio-chem-

icals

250,000

G/Y

ZeaChem utilizes a hybrid process of biochemical and thermochemical pro­cessing that preserves the best of both approaches from yield and economic perspectives

ZeaChem, Commercial facility, Boardman, OR, USA

Commercial

Facility,

Estimated

completion

2015

Poplar trees, Wheat straw

Cellulosic

ethanol,

bio-chem-

icals

25+ MG/Y

Located adjacent to ZeaChem’s dem­onstration plant. ZeaChem utilizes a hybrid process of biochemical and ther­mochemical processing that preserves the best of both approaches from yield and economic perspectives

G = Gallons, Y = Year

*Disclaimer: The information in this list was collected in March 2013, in the open literature, in World Wide Web, and from company websites. The status and accuracy of this information may change depending on the success and failure of individual enterprises, and the list is not a com­prehensive list of all existing, under-construction, and planned celhdosic plants in the world.

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